What does it mean to be rational — to reason well and effectively? Chapters include introductions to foundational issues and methods of study in the field, as well as treatment of specific types of thinking and reasoning and their application in a broad range of fields including business, education, law, medicine, music, and science. Experiment 3 examined the effects of explanations to abstract or thematic problems on transfer to subsequent abstract or thematic problems. Therefore, the concepts of such an important skill have to be learned, trained, and practiced in individuals' daily routines and works. This research proposes that information distortion might be mitigated by disrupting its driver, namely, the need for cognitive consistency. Finally, we argue that coherent conditional probabilities are important for probabilistic analyses of conditionals, nonmonotonic reasoning, quantified statements, and paradoxes.
It has been argued that personal decisions are the leading cause of death, and 80% of healthcare expenditures result from physicians' decisions. Given that more than 30% of healthcare costs are wasted on inappropriate care, suboptimal care is increasingly connected to the quality of medical decisions. Transfer of reasoning occurred from both initial problem types, particularly to problems of the same type; however, transfer occurred to a greater extent from abstract problems than from thematic problems. This goal of cognitive consistency, defined as the desire to maintain a state of coher- ence within a belief system, is a significant driver of distortion Chaxel et al. Identifying the nature of the responsible causal pathologies can be used to reveal some of the cognitive processes likely to be present in non-pathological belief formation. For early humans, forced to make survival-oriented predictions, it was essen- tial to seek consistency in the surrounding environ- ment. After introducing the rationality framework, we present an interactive view on the relation between normative and empirical work.
A possible starting place is to ask whether an argument is internally consis- tent, which is to say whether the levels of credence attached to its compo- nents -major premise, minor premise and conclusion -are consistent with each other. Study 4 shows that priming counterarguing inhibits consistency-related concepts. The volume will be of interest to scholars and students working in developmental, social and clinical psychology, philosophy, economics, artificial intelligence, education, and linguistics. Doing so is attractive for several reasons, but it complicates the problem of assessing the merits of conditional arguments. Experiment 2 explored the effects of problem similarity and explanations on transfer between problems. We provide evidence for this account and discuss its implications for understanding belief. On the basis of an analysis of the logic of classification systems, the author argues that there are no procedures available to independently verify the existence of these psychological states.
Beliefs are stable mental representations of reality that we accept as true. The data support the conditional probability interpretation of conditionals and the narrow-scope reading of the negation of conditionals. Despite their considerable importance, the cognitive nature of belief and the underlying processes involved in forming beliefs have received little formal investigation in their own right. Confirmation bias, as the term is typically used in the psychological literature, connotes the seeking or interpreting of evidence in ways that are partial to existing beliefs, expectations, or a hypothesis in hand. The design — an adaptation of Wason's selection task — reveals the use that subjects make of information after buying it.
A taxonomy of technology is described in the closing section of the article. This article describes an alternate paradigm that coordinates one dimension of societal events—technology—with changes in people's consciousness and subsequent behavior. Application of stepwise multiple regression resulted in the identification of four factors that were most predictive of ultrasonic inspection performance. Although transfer occurred following explanations, no effect of similarity was found for thematic problems. Specifically, previous research has not answered the following question: What factors are present in a successful inspection that are not present in an unsuccessful inspection? How does rationality, broadly conceived, relate to the knowledge one acquires, the beliefs one forms, the explanations one constructs or appropriates, the judgments and decisions one makes, the values one adopts? Five studies confirm this prediction. What is the character of human reasoning and, in particular, does it tend to be rational? The Oxford Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning is a comprehensive and authoritative handbook covering all the core topics of the field of thinking and reasoning.
Nine different information processing factors were correlated individually and collectively with inspection performance. Then, we report a new experiment which shows that people interpret indicative conditionals and counter-factuals by coherent conditional probability assertions and negate conditionals by negating their consequents. An experiment is reported which tests for positive confirmation bias in a setting in which individuals choose what information to buy, prior to making a decision. We present a unified approach for investigating rational reasoning about basic argument forms involving indicative conditionals, counterfactuals, and basic quantified statements within coherence-based probability logic. Explanations facilitated transfer only when the initial problems were abstract; verbalization did not produce transfer between problems. Performance measures and tape recorded commentary were obtained from each of 139 inspections of pipe weld specimens. The question of what kind of behavior or thinking is rational is highly debated for overviews on discussions within philosophy and psychology, see e.
This may be due, in part, to the challenges of operationalising intimately familiar, yet highly complex and distributed cognitive processes. Study 1 demonstrates that priming a counterarguing mindset decreases information distortion. Furthermore, it is argued that focusing on psychological states serves to inhibit the systematic study of societal changes particularly changes in technology that are affecting and shaping all aspects of human existence. Inspection success rate was 400 percent higher when these factors were present in the inspection process than when they were not. Drawing on writings from The Great Rationality Debate from the fields of philosophy, economics, and psychology, we identify core ingredients of rationality commonly encountered across various theoretical models.
In this study, a detailed examination was completed of the inspection processes currently employed. Rationality is a concept that has a value-laden undertone; to say that reason- ing is rational is to say that it is in some sense good or correct reasoning. Round robin studies of ultrasonic inspections for intergranular stress corrosion cracking have revealed that performance levels leave substantial room for improvement. Experiment 1 tested the effects of problem explanations and verbalization instructions on transfer from abstract or thematic problems to abstract problems. Strong evidence of positive confirmation bias, in both information acquisition and information use, is found; and this bias is found to be robust to experience. We also explore ways of judging the consistency of people's beliefs as represented by components of conditional arguments. This supports the idea that assuring the consistency among even a small number of beliefs is difficult to do, especially if the beliefs in question are not brought into consciousness at the same time; but consistency can be enhanced when beliefs are considered simultaneously or nearly so.