Liberalisation The process within Europe of removing restrictive trade practices and increasing competition within the airline sector. Typically, the term refers to on-shore trips by cruise ship passengers. All-inclusive A holiday where all services, facilities and entertainment are included in the price. Tourism industry The organisations and businesses that collectively provide or facilitate tourism experiences. Wilkinson, York University, Canada in e-Review of Tourism Research, Vol. Architectural Visual pollution created by the building of pollution inappropriate structures, such as large, multistorey hotels, that do not fit with local styles and scale.
Tour operators and travel agents are intermediaries. He has previously held positions at a number of other institutions, including the University of Northumbria Reader in Tourism and the University of Lincoln, where he was Professor of Tourism and Head of Department, Tourism and Recreation Management. Tourism system The concept of tourism as an interlinking system involving three regions: the generating, transit and destination regions. . Micro-economics Economic analysis at the level of the individual people or businesses. Readers are encourage The Sage Course Companion in Travel and Tourism is an accessible introduction to the subject that will help readers extend their understanding of key concepts and enhance their thinking skills in line with course requirements.
Hospitality industry The industry that embraces hotels lodging and catering the provision of food, drink and, where relevant, entertainment. Commodification Cultural objects or events not normally available for sale are commodified when they are purchased by tourists; they become a tourism commodity consumed by tourists for a price. International tourist arrivals The number of international tourists visiting a destination or country. Supply curve A graph that depicts the relationship between the cost and supply of a product or service. © Richard Sharpley 2006 First published 2006 Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Yield management Maximising revenue from the sale of hotel rooms, flights or holidays by raising or lowering the price according to demand. Alienation A sense of placelessness, of not belonging, of meaninglessness in modern society.
Edutainment A form of experience where education is combined with entertainment. This revised and expanded second edition provides not only a comprehensive theoretical foundation in development studies but also a critical analysis of contemporary themes and issues relevant to the study of tourism and its potential contribution to development. Inseparability A characteristic of a service, whereby the production and consumption of a service cannot be separated. Strategic alliance Where two or more businesses, such as airlines, collaborate to gain competitive advantage. Societal marketing An approach to marketing that reflects an organisation's social and environmental responsibility. Ludic Forms of tourist behaviour that can be described as play, usually unrestricted by conventional social rules of the tourist's home society. Least developed countries The forty or so poorest countries in the world.
Room rates The prices charged for a hotel room. World Travel and Tourism Council An organisation whose members are chief executives of major travel and tourism businesses and which works to promote the economic benefits of tourism development. Despite this explosion in the study of tourism, however, it is still struggling to achieve wider academic legitimacy, it remains to some extent divorced from the industry upon which it is focuses and, even within its academic ranks, there remains uncertainty over its role and future direction. Five freedoms The freedoms necessary for international airlines to operate on specified routes. This important and stimulating volume will have global appeal to higher level students, academics and researchers within tourism and related disciplines.
Consumer culture The practice of consumption buying or having things has a cultural significance as well as fulfilling utilitarian needs. Tourist typologies Categorisations of tourists based upon different parameters. Sustainable tourism development Tourism that, ideally, contributes positively to the sustainable socio-economic development of the destination. Wine tourism A type of special interest tourism that is motivated by an interest in wine. While edited volumes, in my opinion, are not usually the most readable or useful types of books, this edited volume is thorough and extensive, giving anyone who is interested in the issue of tourism and economic development issues a great deal to read through. Day tripper A tourist on a day visit from home. Staged authenticity Rituals, events, shows and other performances that appear authentic but are artificially constructed or staged out of context for the benefit of tourists.
The problem is that once you have gotten your nifty new product, the travel and tourism sharpley richard gets a brief glance, maybe a once over, but it often tends to get discarded or lost with the original packaging. Multiples Large travel agency chains as distinct from independent travel retailers often owned by a tour operator. It charts the development of tourism as an area of study, analyzing approaches taken from an international context; it critiques contemporary epistemologies of tourism framed around the social science vs. Pull factors Characteristics of a destination that pull tourists towards choosing it for a holiday. Travel advisory Official government advice on the safety of travel to destinations. Market segmentation The practice of dividing markets into subgroups. There has been continual expansion in the provision of taught programmes at undergraduate and postgraduate level, dramatic developments in the tourism literature and a growing community of tourism academics.
There has been continual expansion in the provision of taught programmes at undergraduate and postgraduate level, dramatic developments in the tourism literature and a growing community of tourism academics. Allocentric Allocentric refers to tourists who are outgoing, adventurous, risk-takers. Alternative tourism A term that collectively describes forms of tourism that are an alternative to mass tourism. This sound collection of critical pieces is a 'must read' not only for undergraduate and postgraduate students, but also for all those interested or involved in tourism and development. Nevertheless, perspectives on and understanding of dark tourism remain varied and theoretically fragile whilst, to date, no single book has attempted to draw together the conceptual themes and debates surrounding dark tourism, to explore it within wider disciplinary contexts and to establish a more informed relationship between the theory and practice of dark tourism. Hotel consortium A group of independent hotels that work together for economies of scale in marketing and purchasing. International development The process of socio-economic development at the global level.
Classification The classifying of accommodation providers by the facilities provided e. Sport tourism Tourism involving participation in or attendance at sporting events. Despite this explosion in the study of tourism, however, it is still struggling to achieve wider academic legitimacy, it remains to some extent divorced from the industry upon which it is focuses and, even within its academic ranks, there remains uncertainty over its role and future direction. Ego-enhancement A motivational factor characterised by the need to feel better about oneself; to achieve personal reward from the tourism experience. The quality of research and the depth of thought that has gone into the study of this phenomenon over the past decade are fascinating. Psychocentric The opposite of allocentric, psychocentrics are inwardly focused, unadventurous and risk-averse. Secondary data Information that already exists in the public domain.
Principals Producers within the travel industry, including airlines, hotels and attractions. Readers are encouraged not only to think like a Travel and Tourism professional but also to think about the subject critically. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers. Push factors Personal, psychological factors or needs that push or motivate tourists to participate in tourism. Periodicity A term to describe different levels of demand over a period, such as a week.